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Designers

Claudio Bellini lives and works in Milan where he was born in 1963. In 1990, he graduated in Architecture and Industrial Design from Milan Polytechnic and  embarked on a series of international experiences, taking part in research projects in the fields of industrial architecture and furniture design.

In 1998, he designed the TW Collection for Frezza, a timeless products which marked his official arrival and specialization in office design, a sector in which he has received numereous awards. In the years that followed, he worked with a number of historic firms in the field of Italian and international design as well as working on interior design projects for major showrooms and articipating in numerous architecture competitions.

2006 saw the foundation of “Claudio Bellini Design + Design”, a design studio distinguished by formal and technological research with a decidedly experimental approach which is carried out in the prototype laboratory in the studio.


Having graduated from the Middle East Technical University Industrial design department in 1988, she has completed his masters degree in interior design at Pratt Institute of Technology of New York in 1992.

She continued  his endeavours in New York between 1990-1994. She was employed as an interior designer in Left and Associates Interior design company during his residence in New York. She worked on projects like; The Malibu and Hampton summer homes of Geoffrey Katzenberg and Steven Spielberg, the home of  Tom Cruise in Colorado, Armani AIX stores of Santa Monica, Miami, Michigan, Los Angeles and New Jersey along with the Giorgio Armani boutique in Bloomingdale. She did product design in Pentagram Graphic Design company, actively involved in the design of  leaflet stands of  Citibank and Clarks of England.

Ece Yalım, besides her professional career continues since 2004 to teach part time in the Middle East Technical University on the topic of “Colors in Industrial Design” and also acts as graduation project consultant. She also continues her position as ETMK vice president since 2008.

M. Oğuz Yalım has graduated from the department of  Fine Arts Interior design and  Environmental design of Bilkent University in 1993. Between the years 1993-1995 he was employed as an interior design architect at Argeta Construction and Decoration company. He continues his endeavours in Artful Interior Architecture and design company which he established together with his wife Ece Yalım in 1996.

He has implemented numerous projects like restaurants, galleries, office and home design projects. Since 1993. He produces special design furnitures suitable for person and the surrounding. Besides these, he continues his endeavours as consultant on company identity creation along with design management to companies.

Feride Toprak was born in Ankara in 1983 has graduated from Department of Industrial Designof Middle East Technical University in 2005


Born at Ankara in 1969. Graduated from the Industrial Products Design Department of METU. Went to USA in 1995 and worked at Firehouse Design Team as a designer and specialized in design patents. Returned to Turkiye in 2000 and was a Design and R&D Manager responsible for office furniture design at Nurus. Erciyas has been providing design services since 2004 at his firm Farm_Design.

He became a pioneer in Turkiye by providing services in all phases of the conversion process of designs to products in his expertise area of office furnitures.  Convinced that designers are pressured by design trends as much as by the manufacturing capability of companies, and believing that creatable designs form the connection between the producer and user, Erciyas proposes that the design process should be handled in an integrated manner. In this respect, he offers a course titled “Dynamics of Production for Industrial Designers” at the Industrial Products Design Department of METU.  He also leads the “Industrial Design I and II” studios.


Paola De Francesco was born on 1969 in Italy. Graduated from the Architecture Department of Milano University. Before graduation, during 1994 he worked with the Milano G14 Group and participated in architectural competitions involving “Development of Living Spaces”.

Joined CIBIC&Partners Studio in 1997 and worked with Zoran Minic at the “Valerio Catullo Airport(1998)” project. Became an art specialist in 2000.

Collaborated with Pop Solid Fabrication Group manufacturing its own designs in 2003 and designed products for the Orange Room Collection.  Continues his work as a designer and architect at the De Francesco+Silva Studio founded in Milano on 2004.

João Ramos Silva was born on 1973 in Portugal. After graduating in 1993 from the Algarve University’s design department located at Faro, the following year he began his architectural training at Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades  in Lisbon. 


Sezgin Akan was born in Ankara. Receiving her secondary education at the the Tabeetha School in Tel Aviv and the Kadıköy Anadolu Lycee in Istanbul, she received her professional training at the Industrial Design Department of Middle East Technical University in Ankara. Following her university education, she served as a researcher at the same department for 4 years and then as a part-time instructor at the Interior Design Department of Bilkent University, also in Ankara. 

Akan is a founder and partner of the Studio Contract Design Company. She has completed the interior design projects of banks, offices, stores and restaurants for several national and international companies, including Mitsubishi, Reuters, Telerate, Giat Industries, Bank Indosuez, Deutche Aerospace, Japon Tabacco, Ulusoy, Körfez Bank, Torkut, Usaş-SAS, Oyak, OMK, Azzaro, and Polo. She was also the designer of Studio Contract Design’s office furniture program. Currently she is in charge of her company’s interior design and furniture design projects. 

Outside of her professional activities, Sezgin Akan is an accomplished jewellery designer. Her work has been exhibited and carried by galleries in Ankara, İstanbul, London and Amsterdam.

Since 2004, Akan has been teaching courses on “new jewellery” and “digital jewellery” at METU’s Industrial Design Department, where she also attends the Graduation Project course. She is one of the founders of the Industrial Design Society of Turkey.


Sule Koc is an Istanbul based industrial designer focusing on product and spatial design. Born in 1982, she has graduated from Middle East Technical University (ODTU) with honors in Industrial Design in 2004. Stepped on profession with furniture, she has designed for a variety of sectors including lighting, natural stones, construction elements industry. After seven years of experience as a design director in different design offices, she opened her own studio in 2010.

She has received prizes including Red Dot Design Awards, Design Turkey Superior Design Awards, Elle Decoration International Design Awards and A’Golden Design Awards.

Participated in several international design and art exhibitions, Şule Koç likes also creating artworks on video and installation . By means of design, she is in search for innovation, interactivity and timeless products. Her works are simple, emotional, and thought provoking. Her motivation is to lead people through experiences and inspire them.


Yalın Tan was born in Izmir in 1969 and studied in İstanbul. After his graduation from Bilkent University Interior Architecture and Environmental Design Department, he worked for a while with Midek / Mingü. In 1995, he established his own company. After 5 years of individual working, they started their partnership with Jeyan Ülkü.

From the establishment, the company is focused on office, retail and residential projects. They give project design, consultancy and application services to many either local or international brands and institutions. They are also responsible for local project management and application consultancy of many global brands. The company continues working with seperate teams specialised in project design and application.


Erdem Akan / Chief Designer

Born in 1973. Studied mechanical engineering at Bosphorus University, Istanbul; Industrial Design at University of Salford, Manchester; design managemet at Bilgi University, Istanbul. 1996-2001 Undertook various design and coordination activites for commercial vehicles at Ford Motor Company, Istanbul, Dunton and Dearborn studios. 2001-20014 worked as creative director for several universities.

Boğaç Şimşir / Chief Engineer

Born in 1970. Studied mechanical engineering at Istanbul Technical University. B. A. at University of South Florida. 1994- 2002. Started his career at autmotive in Delphi GM Istanbul as project engineer, following Hyundai Motor Company, Turkey, Korea. Indonesian the field of production & manufacturing, Ford Motor Company as chief design engineer Istanbul, Detroit. 2002 - 2005 worked as R&D expert at Arçelik.


Graduated from the Industrial Design Department of Middle East Technical University in 1988, completed her Master’s Degree in interior design at the Pratt Technology Institute in New York on 1992. Continued work in New York between 1990-1994.

During this period worked as a designer at the interior design firm Left and Associates. Some of the projects worked on are: Geoffrey Katzenberg and Steven Spielberg’s summer homes in Malibu and Hampton, Tom Cruise’s home in Colorado, and Armani AIX Stores at Santa Monica, Miami, Michigan, Los Angeles and New Jersey.  Also the Giorgio Armani boutique in Bloomingdale. Including the leaflet/brochure stands of Citibank and Clarks of England, worked on product designs at the Pentagram Graphic Design firm.

In addition to her professional career since 2004,  Ece Yalım offers a course titled “Colors in Industrial Design” at the Middle East University and consults educational projects. Since 2008 she is the vice-president of ETMK.

M. Oğuz Yalım graduated from the Fıne Arts Interior and Environmental Design Department of Bilkent University in 1993. Between 1993-1995, worked as an interior design architect in the  Argeta Construction and Decoration firm. Continues his work at the Artful Interior Architecture and Design firm founded in 1996 jointly with his spouse Ece Yalım.  Completed varied projects such as restaurants, galeries, offices and residential design projects.  Since 1993 he produces specially designed furniture for the individual and his surroundings.  Additionally he provides consultancy services in design management and corporate identity areas.

Feride Toprak born at Ankara in 1983, she is a 2005 graduate of the Industrial Products Design Department of the Middle East Technical University(METU).


Born in France in the ‘70s, brothers Ronan and Erwan Bouroullec first sparked an interest in design through their relationship with Issey Miyake in 2000. In just a few short years the brothers have been published twice, first in the “Catalogue de Raison” and then in the 2003 Phaidon issue. Both publications showcase images of their projects. Ronan and Erwan are seen among the rising stars of the design world; bold and reflective while simultaneously poetic and passionate, their creations are considered “micro-architectures” with different functional applications and the ability to characterize and distinctly define the places in which they are put.


Shiro Kuramata was a Japanese designer from 1965 when he founded the Kuramata Design Office in Tokyo until he died in 1991. Kuramata designed some of the most significant and lasting pieces ever produced. His significance in western design was shown first in Memphis, then with Cappellini in 1987. Cappellini celebrated his talent and made him its choice designer to introduce the Cappellini brand on the international stage. His work can be seen in the permanent collections of the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris, MoMA of New York, the Metropolitan Museum and the Museum of Modern Art in Toyama.


Giuliano Cappelletti

Mimar ve Tasarımcı

Mimar ve tasarımcı Giuliano Cappelletti, Milano Politeknik Okulu’nda mimarlık eğitimi aldı. 1970 yılında, Enzo Pozzoli ile birlikte, ilk işi olan Udacanturiodesign tasarım ofisini kurdu. Çalışmalarını 2008’den itibaren Giuliano Cappelletti & Partners adıyla kurduğu şirketi aracılığıyla devam ettirdi. Ofis, mimari ve tasarım yarışmaları ile sergilerine katıldı, çalışmaları önemli yarışmalarda ödüle layık görüldü.

Proje yönetimi, iç mimari tasarım, ürün tasarımı ve mimari alanlarında hizmet veren Giuliano Cappelletti & Partners ekibine, 2012’de oğlu Gabriele’yi de kattı. Şirket aynı yıl Şanghay’da bir ofis açtı. Büyük tasarım ofisleriyle işbirliği yapan şirket; işlevsellik ve estetiği, kullanıma sunduğu yeni malzemeler ve zanaatıyla harmanlayarak, tasarımından üretimine özel ürünler yaratma hedefiyle çalışıyor.

Gabriele Cappelletti

Mimar ve Tasarımcı

Gabriele Cappelletti, Milano Politeknik Okulu’nda mimarlık eğitimi aldı.

Şanghay ve Libreville’de uluslararası projelerle işbirliği geliştirerek, iç mimari tasarım, ürün tasarımı ve mimari alanında deneyim kazandı. 2012’de Giuliano Cappelletti & Partners tasarım ofisinin ekibine katıldı.

Tasarım anlayışını, zanaatkarlarla yaptığı yakın çalışmalarda elde ettiği beceri ve tecrübeyle şekillendiren Cappelletti, çalışmalarıyla pek çok ödül kazandı.


Born in Copenhagen in 1963, Jakob earned his first degree in Design Engineering. After studies and internships in Colorado, Milan and Paris he completed his second degree in Product Design at the Art Center Europe, Switzerland in 1992. Established in 1993 in Copenhagen, the jakobwagner studio predominantly worked with high tech products for sport, professional and medical applications during the first 10 years. Jakob’s work has been exhibited internationally and has received numerous awards. It can be seen at the permanent exhibition at MoMA in New York.


Michela Catalano and Ilaria Marelli both graduated with a degree in Architecture and Industrial Design. Since 1999 they have worked in the product design, communication and interior design fields. Michela Catalano took part in several competitions and worked in Italy and in Chile, in addition to consulting in Cappellini in the research and development department. Ilaria Marelli is a specialized sound designer and has taken part in photography competitions; she works together with the Politecnico of Milan teaching industrial and environmental design. Additionally she works with Nemo, Zanotta, and Bosa Ceramiche.


Edward Barber and Jay Osgerby met while attending the Royal College of Art in London. They have been working together since 1996 not only in the furniture design field, but also with companies such as Authentics, Coca Cola, Levi’s and Venini. Many of Barber Osgerby’s projects are part of permanent collections in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London and in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.


Marcel Wanders is product- and interior designer who became internationally known with his iconic Knotted Chair, which he produced for Droog Design in 1996. His work is ubiquitous; designing for leading international companies such as Flos, Alessi, Puma, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, MAC Cosmetics, Cappellini, B&B Italia, Moroso and Target. In 2001 Wanders co-founded the successful design label Moooi, of which he is the art director. Additionally he designs for architectural projects, such as the Kameha Grand hotel in Bonn, the Mondrian South Beach hotel in Miami and the Villa 


Born in London in 1959, Japer Morrison graduated from the Royal College of Art and established his first design office in 1986. Immediately following, he began his lasting and valuable collaboration with Cappellini. Nowadays he works in London and Paris for high-level companies such as Alessi, Flos, Rowenta, Sony and Samsung. Each Morrison project has a simple elegance which makes it strongly modern as an archetype linked to past, favoring function on expression.


Born in New York in 1974, Todd Bracher is a New York City-based designer who spent a decade working in Copenhagen, Milan, Paris and London. Bracher designs furniture and architecture and he is currently hailed as “America’s Next Great Designer” by the NY Daily News. He received nominations for Designer of the Year in 2008 and 2009. His experience ranges from working independently, to co-founding the experimental collaboration “to22”, to serving as the Creative Director of the luxury brand Georg Jensen.


Doshi Levien, established in 2000, is a London-based design office led by Jonathan Levien and Nipa Doshi. Their work celebrates fusion and explores the coming together of cultures, technology, story-telling, industrial design and fine craftsmanship. Nipa’s refined and astute visual direction is combined with Jonathan’s precision and tenacity as an industrial designer: trend setters, they make their own rules based on extracting as much richness as possible out of an idea. The studio gives expert advice to global brands on cultural and social insights, leading to design opportunities for the emerging economies. They work internationally for a broad range of clients who are leaders in their field.


Born in the UK in 1984, Benjamin Hubert studied at Loughborough University and graduated in 2006 with a degree in Industrial Design and Technology. He founded his studio in 2007 in London. The studio specializes in materials-driven, process-led, industrial design across furniture and lighting sectors working with international manufacturers in Europe. Hubert works on a wide range of projects including both mass and batch produced consumer products and limited editions. His products have been exhibited internationally.


Jean-Marie Massaud, the designer from Touluse, graduated in 1990 from the National Industrial High School. He began working in both Asia and in France, ultimately opening his own office in Paris in 1994. Since then, he has dedicated himself to industrial and furniture design, building important relationships with brands such as Authentics, Baccarat and Magis. His approach, oriented to the research of essential things, always careful to men centrality, brings him to work with very different brands: Cappellini, Cacharel, Lancôme, Tronconi and Yamaha offshore.


Born in Germany in 1964, Werner Aisslinger worked as a freelancer in many well-known design offices including those of Jasper Morrison, Ron Arad and de Lucchi prior to setting up his own in Berlin in 1993. Aisslinger was chosen many times for the Compasso d’ Oro and other important European awards. He has designed items which can currently be seen in the permanent collections of MoMA, Vitra Design Museum and New York Metropolitan. He believes that design must seek new materials and technologies. When working for Zanotta, Porro, Magis he uses fiberglass, gels, aluminum foam, neoprene and three-dimensional textiles.


Born in France in the ‘70s, brothers Ronan and Erwan Bouroullec first sparked an interest in design through their relationship with Issey Miyake in 2000. In just a few short years the brothers have been published twice, first in the “Catalogue de Raison” and then in the 2003 Phaidon issue. Both publications showcase images of their projects. Ronan and Erwan are seen among the rising stars of the design world; bold and reflective while simultaneously poetic and passionate, their creations are considered “micro-architectures” with different functional applications and the ability to characterize and distinctly define the places in which they are put.


Christophe Pillet graduated with a degree in Decorative Arts in Nice in 1985, then collaborated with Philippe Starck in 1993 to become an independent designer. His main interests are projects concerned with interior design and interior architecture. He is a worthy contributor in this new and interesting pulse in contemporary French design. In 1994 he was nominated for “Designer of the Year.” Pillet is a scrupulous designer with demanding choices in materials and finishes, searching from the beginning for a quiet elegance in his collaboration of brands such as Edra, Trussardi, Daum, Lancôme, Shiseido and Whirlpool.


NENDO -
Designer

Under the direction of architect Oki Sato, the group that gathers under the name Nendo has represented a cultured and refined alternative to self-celebrative design since 2002. “Nendo” means “clay” in Japanese; the job of the Nendo group in the field of interior architecture, furniture and graphics is to be as pliable and flexible as clay. In a just few short years and running on big personality and unmatched determination in the field of modern design, Nendo has already received several international credits.


Yüksek lisans öğrenimi gördükleri Los Angeles'ta tanışan ve çalışan, ardından özel ve mesleki hayatlarını birleştirmeye karar vererek İstanbul'a yerleşen Murat ve Alexis Şanal 2001 yılında Şanal Mimarlığı kurdu.


Alexis Şanal & Okay Karadayılar
Mimar & Grafik Tasarımcı

Alexis Şanal

Mimar

2002 yılında İstanbul'a taşınmadan önce Los Angeles'ta çeşitli mimarlık ofislerinde ve yaratıcı ofislerin projelerinde yer alan Şanal, akıllı sayısal çevrelerle fiziksel çevrelerin entegrasyonunu hedefleyen hesaplamalar ve onların gelecek için potansiyellerini araştıran projeler üzerine çalıştı. 

MIT'de sayısal kentler üzerine araştırma çalışmalarına devam eden, 2007 yılında University of Queensland'da mimari tasarım stüdyosunda yürütücülük yapan Alexis Şanal’ın, insanlar ve çevre tasarımı arasında öngördüğü düzenli ilişki, hem akademik hem mesleki arayışlarında kendini gösterir.

Konferans Bildirileri:

•  Şanal, A. ve diğerleri., Design Methodology for Intelligent Ambience Solutions in Future Workplaces [Gelecekteki İşyerleri için Akıllı Ortam Tasarım Metodolojisi], Ambiance 05 Konferansı, Finlandiya, Eylül 2005

•  Şanal, A., Istanbul as the Office [Bir Ofis Olarak İstanbul], UIA Dünya Mimarlık Kongresi, Türkiye, Temmuz 2005

•  Şanal, A., Being There: Creating a Network of Places [Orada Olmak: Bir Mekanlar Ağı Yaratmak], Zirai-Endüstriyel Tasarım Sempozyumu, Türkiye, Nisan 2005

•  Şanal, A., Collaborative Work Practices in Turkey's AEC Industry [Türkiye'nin AEC Endüstrisinde İşbirlikçi Çalışma Pratikleri], ECPPM Konferansı, Türkiye, Eylül 2004

Okay Karadayılar

Grafik Tasarımcı

1983'te doğdu. İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Görsel İletişim Tasarımı Bölümü'nden mezun oldu. 2009 yılında New York’ta Görsel Sanatlar Baskı ve Kitap Sanatları Konut, Sanatçı Programı’nı tamamladı. 2000'den bu yana, bilişim sistemlerini kullanarak, farklı ortamlarda faaliyet gösteren, serbest tasarımcı olarak çalışıyor.

Eserleri, sanat içerikli aylık sinema dergisi Altyazı ile Türkiye Grafik Tasarımcıları Derneği'nin "en iyi kataloğu" ödülünü kazandı. Karadayılar aynı zamanda Michael Bishop sergi kataloğu yönetmenliğini yürütüyor.

Evren Uzer ve Bilge Kalfa ile birlikte imkanmekan’ın yanı sıra 2007 yılında kamusal alanı tartışmak için bağımsız bir platform kurdu. imkanmekan atölyeleri, görüşmeleri ve yayınlarıyla, Kültür 2010 İstanbul Avrupa Kültür Başkenti projesine katıldı. Ayrıca 2010 yılında Türkiye Mimarlar Odası tarafından Mimarlık Ödülü’ne layık görüldü.


Giuliano Cappelletti

Mimar ve tasarımcı olan Giuliano Cappelletti, Milan Politeknik Okulu’nda mimari eğitimini tamamlamış ve bu okuldan mezun olmuştur. 1970 yılında, Enzo Pozzoli ile ilk işi olan Udacanturiodesign tasarım ofisini kurmuştur. 2008 yılında, işini Giuliano Cappelletti & Partners olarak devam ettirmeye başlamış ve 2012 yılından itibaren de, Milan’daki mezuniyeti ile birçok İtalyan ve uluslararası şirketlerdeki tecrübelerinden sonra oğlu Gabriele’i kendi ekibine kazandırmıştır. 2012’de ortakları ile birlikte, mimari ve iç mimarinin gelişimde olduğu Şangay’da ofis açmıştır.

Bu ofis; proje yönetimi, iç mimari tasarım, ürün tasarımı ve mimari alanlarına hizmet vermektedir. Ofis, mimari ve tasarım yarışmaları ile sergilerine katılım sağlamaktadır. Kendisine ait bazı çalışmalar; örneğin ABC Cucine tarafından üretilen ‘’Levando’’ mutfak evyesi ile katıldığı ‘’ Selezione del XVI Compasso d'oro’’ veya “Premio 5 Stelle Tecnhotel”, “Premio Donatella”, “Selezione International Management” gibi önemli yarışmalarda ödüllere layık görülmüşlerdir.

Cappelletti, büyük tasarım şirketleri ile iş birliği yapmıştır ve yapmaya devam etmektedir. Ofisinin amacı; kuzey İtalya bölgesini, işlevselliği, estetiği ve mobilya tasarımı endüstrisinde kullanıma sunduğu yeni malzemeler ile şekillendiren zanaatsal birikimini harmanlayarak, tasarım aşamasından üretim aşamasına dek özel ürünler sunmaktır. Ekibi ile birlikte yıllardır, ürün tasarımı, iç mimari tasarım ve mimaride büyük tecrübeler kazanmıştır.

Gabriele Cappelletti

Mimar ve tasarımcı olan Gabriele Cappelletti, Milan Politeknik Okulu’nda mimari eğitimini tamamlamış ve bu okuldan sürdürülebilir mimari diploması ile 2012 yılında mezun olmuştur.

Shangai ve Libreville’de uluslararası projeler ile işbirliği geliştirerek, iç mimari tasarım, ürün tasarımı ve mimari alanında çalıştığı Giuliano Cappelletti & Partners tasarım ofisine 2012 yılında katılmıştır.

Aynı zamanda, büyüdüğü alanda birçok zanaatkar ile yakın ilişki içerisinde, birçok mobilya şirketi ile işbirliği yapmaktadır. Zanaatkarlar ile çalıştığı bu yıllarda kazandığı beceri ve tecrübe kendi tasarım anlayışını ortaya koymasında etken rol oynamıştır.

Çalışmaları; Fuorisalone 2013 kapsamında düzenlenen Hybrid Architecture and Design etkinliğinde sergilenen BeMod kanepe tasarımı ile kazandığı yarışma, Milan Triennale’inde düzenlenen Local to Global organizasyonunda sergilenen Shard masa ile katıldığı Confindustria Como tarafından düzenlenen  ComOn Design Competition yarışması ve 2015’te Salone del Mobile di Milano’da sergilenen Pat dolap tasarımı ile katıldığı  Brianza Design Competition yarışması da dahil olmak üzere birçok ödüle layık görülmüştür.


  


Amerika'nın önde gelen mobilya markalarından Haworth bünyesindeki tasarım ofisi, alanında çığır açacak inovasyonları keşfetmek üzere pek çok ArGe ekibiyle işbirliği yapıyor. Almanya, Amerika ve Çin'de tasarım merkezleri bulunan Haworth, nesiller boyu kullanılacak ürünlerin yanı sıra, yerel ihtiyaç ve tercihlere odaklanan küresel tasarım platformları yaratma hedefiyle çalışıyor.


Toine van den Heuvel was trained as a mechanical engineer, and has specialized in the field of digital design and engineering and industrial design. Based on years of engineering and management experience, he has his professional expertise in the field of designing, and manufacturing prototypes. He has designed numerous furniture that have been very successful in the market.

In his own words: Our passion is technology and design. In addition, we are always looking for simplicity in design. The form directly supports the function. These aspects go hand in hand with our Design & Development approach, which leads to the creation of products that add both functional and aesthetic value for the customer and end-user.